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The efforts of Kroll and Amaya have brought transgenics to Xenopus.

X. tropicalis with its shorter generation time allows for the production of transgenic lines as well as study cis-acting regulatory elements that may affect gene expression.

The transgenic technique offers another alternative to microinjection for the misexpression of particular mRNAs. The technique can be particularly powerful for manipulating later stage embryos. Additionally inducible promoters and the Gal4-UAS system have been shown to work in Xenopus.

For a transgenic protocol tailored to X. tropicalis, we recommend the following sources:

Amaya site - also contains a gallery of transgenic embryos

Grainger site - or directly to their protocol

Also see the following references:

Hirsch et al. 2002

Offield et. al 2000

The inducible promoter and Gal4-UAS system are described in

Chae et al. 2002

Hartley et al 2002