II. Facility

A. Environment

The ambient temperature in the facility is maintained between 27 and 28 degrees Celsius.

The light cycle is 12 hours on and 12 hours off year round.

 We find City of Berkeley water sufficient to maintain frogs except that it contains chloramine which must be removed and is toxic to frogs. Chloramines are removed by 5 rows of 5 filter bottles containing coconut carbon filters (http://usfilter.com). The bottles are 3' - 4' tall and about a foot wide. The filters are changed every 12 months. An automatic chloramine tester/sensor is located between the 3rd and 4th bottle of one row. There is an autodialer connected to the tester/sensor, which dials the appropriate person with a prerecorded message alert if there is a problem. These charcoal filters may remove other impurities as well.

Incoming tank water temperature is 26-27 degrees Celsius, and is controlled with a hot/cold water mixing valve.  Tank water temperature equilibrates with the ambient temperature, but with some temperature loss due to evaporative cooling. The resulting temperature is between 26-27ºC in our self-fabricated tank systems, and 28º C in our Aquatic Habitats facility.

NOTE: We used to use non-submersible aquarium water heaters to keep our frog holding tanks warm. However, we noticed that the frogs prefer to hide under the heaters and sometimes would suffer burns! Therefore, we recommend not using these sorts of aquarium heaters. Submersible heaters with good circulation of water may do better but use with caution. We have chosen to increase the room's ambient temperature to make the frogs' habitat more comfortable, which is not necessarily so for the caretakers.